**Who is known for their work on the mathematical theory of communication, known as "information theory"?**

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Claude Shannon is primarily known for his groundbreaking work on the mathematical theory of communication, which is now widely known as information theory. Shannon's seminal paper "A Mathematical Theory of Communication," published in 1948, laid the foundation for the modern study of information theory. His work revolutionized the understanding of how information is transmitted, stored, and processed, and it has had profound implications across various fields including telecommunications, computer science, cryptography, and more. Claude Shannon's contributions to information theory have earned him recognition as one of the most influential figures in the history of computer science and communication theory.