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How does light influence plant growth and development?

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Light is essential for plant growth and development as it is the primary source of energy used in photosynthesis, the process by which plants convert light energy into chemical energy to fuel their growth. Different wavelengths of light, such as red, blue, and green, play specific roles in plant processes like stem elongation, leaf development, flowering, and fruit production. Insufficient light can lead to stunted growth, pale leaves, and poor flowering, while excess light can cause damage to plants. Additionally, the duration of light exposure, known as photoperiod, can also influence the growth and development of plants by triggering specific responses like flowering in certain species.